The amount received from employer to employee is charged under the head salary. Salary includes basic salary or wages, any annuity or pension, gratuity, advance salary, leave encashment, allowances and perquisites. Employer will give you Form 16 which contains all the earnings, deductions and exemptions.
The aggregate of the above incomes, after exemptions are known as Gross Salary and this is charged under the head income from salary.
Basic salary along with commissions and bonuses is fully taxable.
Income from House property-
Any residential or commercial property will be taxed. Even a piece of real estate is not let out, it will be considered as earning from rental income and you should pay tax on it.
The Annual Value can go through a standard deduction of 30% and if you reduce the interest on borrowed capital, then you get the value which is charged under the head income from house property.
Income From business-
Income earned through your profession or business is charged under the head “profits and gains from business or profession”. The income chargeable to tax is the difference between the credits received on running the business and expenses incurred.
Income from Capital Gains –
Any profit or gain arising from transfer of capital asset held as investments are chargeable to tax under the head “capital gains”.
Profits or gains can be of two types – Short term capital gains (STCG) or Long term capital gains (LTCG).
If you hold a capital asset for not more than 12 months in case of shares or not more than 36 months in case of any other asset; then the gain arising on transfer of such asset shall be short term otherwise it will be long term capital gain.
Income from Other Sources –
It is the residual head of income. So if your income doesn’t fall in any of the above category, then it shall be taxed under income from other sources. Some of the earnings that can be taxed under are:
Interest earned from bank savings,
Winning from lottery,
Interest earned on Fixed Deposits,
Income tax is payable by an assessee on his total income from all the source of income. All the heads of income are mutually exclusive. If any income is considered under particular head, it will not be taken into consideration for another head.